This post works through the second essay question on last year’s CFA level 3 exam. If you have not yet downloaded the exam and the guideline answers provided by the CFA Institute, do so here.
The second question on last year’s CFA level 3 essay exam was worth 15 points, a little over 4% of the entire test, and covered topics with which candidates often have a hard time. The four parts, each worth three or four points, cover estate planning and taxes. They are topics in which many candidates have not had much exposure and the curriculum includes a lot of legal points that can be difficult to remember.
The vignette material is relatively small so there isn’t too much information to handle. As always, I read through the material and highlighted data and important points before looking at the questions. Within the material, the investor’s age and any numerical data is usually pretty important as well as any preferences.
Part A was fairly straight forward from the text. The wife is entitled to one of two percentages of the estate, either the 25% of total assets or the 50% of the increase in the estate during the marriage.
As always, remember to show ALL YOUR CALCULATIONS on essay questions. The question was worth 4 points and I bet you would have gotten at least two points if you wrote out the calculations for both percentages even if you ultimately picked the wrong one.
Usually these heirship rules will be spelled out on the exam but make sure you understand the basic concepts and terms for estate planning.
Part B is an important one to study for this year’s candidates. Questions on trusts have come up frequently on the exam. It is not a quantitative section but you need to know the basic rules and especially the differences between revocable and irrevocable trusts, as well as the advantages/disadvantages of each. Notice that the guideline answers provide four possible answers but the question only asks for two. The grader will only look at your top two answers so lead with the best and do not waste your time writing down more than you need.
Remember, with trusts the idea is a transfer of assets outside of probate that may protect assets from other claims and avoid family disputes.
The material on taxes is extremely long and quantitative but many of the prior essay questions have come down to qualitative ideas of whether taxes can be deferred and whether the future rate will be higher than the current. Part C was one of these types of questions and all the information was laid out in the vignette. In these instances, if the question seems difficult, try reading through the vignette focusing on only one solution (either the gift or the estate) and list out the tax rules that apply. Then you can compare the two side by side.
Part D was tough because you basically knew generation skipping or you didn’t. You probably would have gotten at least one point if you described the benefit without explicitly naming it ‘generation skipping’ so make sure you write out your reasoning on all questions. There are some quantitative sections on the estate and tax topics but it seems that the terms and concepts are the most important and will get you a good amount of the points.
The Level III CFA Program essays last year included three questions on individual portfolio management for a total of 14% of your total exam score. That is a huge chunk and combined with the institutional questions, portfolio management was almost a quarter of your exam score. Make sure you hit those two topics hard and be ready for this year’s exam.
‘til next time, happy studyin’
Joseph Hogue, CFA