With just four months left to the December Level I CFA Program exam, it is time to start studying and there’s no better way to begin that talking about the ethics material. Readers of the blog will know that I am constantly reinforcing the importance of study session 1, the material on The Code & Standards.
The material is important for several reasons. First, the topic will be a considerable part of your exam score at all three levels. Ethical and Professional Standards is worth 15% of the CFA level 1 exam and between 10% and 15% of the other two exams. There are some additional readings to study for the level two and three exams but the core material will remain the same throughout. Learn the Code and Standards early and you’ll bank a ton of saved study time ahead of the other two exams.
A second reason for the topic’s importance is the fact that it catches so many CFA level 1 candidates off guard. Too many candidates go into the first exam thinking they can rely on a basic tenet of, “Don’t lie, cheat or steal,” to pick the most obvious answer to each question. They neglect to study the topic area and are horribly surprised when they see the exam questions.
The questions over ethics on the exam do not have obvious answers! Even the ethical person will need to study the example questions in the curriculum to understand how to answer the section.
Finally, the CFA Institute is explicit that the ethics section is used as a tie-breaker for any candidate score that is close to the pass-fail mark. Do well on this section and it might just pull you up from a band 10 fail.
Studying Ethics for the CFA Exam
With the importance of the ethics material, you want to give it plenty of time in your study schedule. We have studied the material in several posts, outlining the most important parts of the Professional Conduct Program (PCP), the Components of the Code and the seven standards.
We won’t go over the three segments of the material because I want to get to the most important part of your study for the ethics section, working problems. You will need to commit the components and the standards to memory, click through here to read our outline of the CFA ethics and standards, but working problems is extremely important.
It’s only through working problems from the end-of-chapter curriculum that you will get a feeling for the actual exam questions. Work enough of these and the correct answer will start to become clearer. Neglect these questions and every multiple choice may sound like a viable answer.
For copyright reasons, we won’t be able to reproduce the question from the end-of-chapter questions. We will instead change the content of the question but keep the intent and the methodology for the answer.
CFA ethics question #1
A research analyst decides to change his recommendation for Greenway Corporation from a buy to a sell. He emails his recommendation change to all the firm’s clients on Monday. The day after the email, a client calls with a buy order for Greenway. The research analyst should:
A. Accept the order
B. Advise the client on the change in recommendation before accepting
C. Not accept the order because it is against the firm’s recommendation
Correct answer: B
Standard III, fair dealing requires that clients be notified fairly of all changes recommendations. The client may not have seen the notification and must be informed. If he still wants to make the trade, he must be allowed to do so even if it is against the firm’s recommendation.
CFA ethics question #2
A research analyst for Broward Brokerage & Investment Banking is asked to write a research report on Brown Forman Corporation. Howard B&I has represented Brown Forman’s acquisitions for the past 20 years. Several senior officers of Howard B&I are also directors of companies with which Brown Forman has business relationships. What is the best course of action for the analyst?
A. Write the report but must refrain from expressing any opinions because of the special relationships between companies.
B. Should not write the report because the Howard B&I officers’ service as directors to Brown Forman subsidiaries.
C. May write the report if the special relationships are disclosed in the report.
Correct answer: C
Standard VI – Disclosure of Conflicts states that all conflicts of interest must be disclosed in research and recommendations. An analyst is not prevented from writing a report because of conflicts but must disclose them in the report. The fact that no opinions are expressed does not clear the analyst of the responsibility to disclose conflicts.
CFA ethics question #3
Jameson is an advisor to the board of trustees of a non-profit foundation. The trustees have given Jameson all the fund’s financial information including planned expenditures. A wealthy contributor to the foundation phones Jameson to say that he has found a potential contributor but needs to show him the foundation’s financial information by the end of the day. Jameson does not have time to contact the trustees, he should:
A. Send the alumni the information because disclosure would benefit the endowment fund
B. Not send the information because it is confidential
C. Send the alumni the information but promptly notify the trustees
Correct answer: B
Standard III establishes the preservation of confidential information to a client. Confidential information cannot be released without permission, regardless of whether the disclosure may benefit the fund. Information can only be released, without permission, if it concerns illegal activities or disclosure is required by law. Information may also be disclosed on an inquiry from the CFA Institute’s Professional Conduct Program.
We will work through more questions over the next couple of weeks to give you a better idea of what the CFA Institute is looking for from the material on the Code and Standards. I cannot stress enough the importance that candidates for the CFA level 1 exam study the actual ethics questions in your curriculum. These are going to be very much like what you see on the exam and the correct answer will not always be obvious.
‘til next time, happy studyin’
Joseph Hogue, CFA