The last study session you’ll ever need in the CFA curriculum is the reading on the Global Investment Performance Standards (GIPS).
Download Mock Exams for 2019 Exam Levels I, II and III by clicking here.
The basic concept behind GIPS is:
- GIPS applies to firms, not individuals. An analyst cannot be “GIPS compliant”
- The goal is fair representation and disclosure across investment opportunities for the public
- It fosters the notion of “self regulation” within the industry
- Each section includes “requirements” and “recommendations” for compliance. I would focus on the requirements if time is limited.
- All actual, fee-paying, discretionary portfolios must be included in at least one composite
- No non-discretionary portfolios, but non-fee paying portfolios may be included
- Must calculate time-weighted total portfolio returns with external cash flows using daily weighting
- Only actual assets, no model portfolios or simulations
The material on disclosures is easily testable along with some of the differences between the real estate and private equity sections.
Firms must disclose:
- If they have met all requirements using the appropriate compliance statement (verbatim!)
- Definition of the firm and description of composites (with creation date) and benchmarks
- If they are presenting gross of fees and any fees deducted
- If presenting net of fees, if model or actual management fees are deducted
- Currency used in presentation
- Measure of internal dispersion
- Fee schedule
- Use and extent of leverage, derivatives and short positions
- Date, description and reason for redefinition of firm or composites
- Minimum asset levels for composites
- Treatment of withholding taxes, dividends, interest and capital gains
- Bundled fees and the types of bundled fees
- Sub-advisors and the period in which they were used
- Any portfolios that were not valued at month end or last business day
- Use of subjective unobservable valuation inputs
- If no benchmark is used and why
- Custom benchmarks used; description, date of creation, components, weights and rebalancing process
- Whether the performance of a past firm or affiliation is linked (only appropriate if substantially all decision makers came over to new firm, the process remains substantially the same, and the firm has documentation of the performance history).
The guidelines on presentation and reporting are also important:
- Total benchmark return for each period must be presented
- Composite assets at the end of each year
- Total firm assets or % of firm assets in each composite
- Returns of less than one year cannot be annualized
- % of composite in non-fee paying portfolios
- % of composite in bundled fee portfolios
- Five years of GIPS compliant performance or since inception if 5-years not available
- Firms must add one year each year until at least ten years of data is reported
Be able to calculate the income return and capital return for real estate funds
Remember the valuation hierarchy for GIPS if the asset’s actual market value is not available
- prices of similar assets in active markets
- prices of similar assets in inactive markets
- observable market inputs other than prices such as dividends, cash flows for pricing models
- subjective or unobservable inputs like discount rates and projections
Wow, we’ve made it through the entire curriculum. Hopefully, you have been able to keep up and have been doing well on practice problems and using other resources. You’re not done just yet. There’s still three weeks left to the exam and they can be the most important three weeks of your preparation. We’ll cover what to expect on test day in Friday’s post and other tips and strategies in subsequent posts all the way up to test day.
‘til next time, happy studyin’
Joseph Hogue, CFA